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Age Related Macular Degeneration (AMD/ ARMD)

Updated: Sep 27, 2021

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD / ARMD) is the leading cause of blindness in adults aged 55 plus. It is important to highlight this very common condition which, if left untreated, can have devastating results. ARMD is a degenerative disease of the macula. The macular is the small central area of the retina responsible for the ability to read, drive, recognize faces and other activities which require us to see fine details.

Types of AMD

There are 2 types:

  1. Dry Macular Degeneration - this occurs due to the gradual breakdown of light sensitive cells and supporting tissue beneath macular leading to vision loss.

  2. Wet Macular Degeneration – occurs due to the growth of abnormal blood vessels beneath the retina. These blood vessels bleed, leak and scar, causing swelling and damage of the macular. Wet ARMD causes rapid vision loss.

Risk Factors

  • Aging

  • Heredity

  • Smoking

  • Hypertension

  • High cholesterol

  • Atherosclerosis

  • Obesity

  • Ultraviolet Rays

Symptoms of AMD

Persons with this condition may notice:

  • A blurring of central vision

  • Straight lines may appear wavy or distorted

  • Blind spots in central vision


Treatment depends on the type of AMD but there is no known cure as yet.

Dry AMD is treated with nutritional intervention and eye vitamins.

Wet AMD usually requires ocular injections to stop the growth of the abnormal blood vessels.

A simple, daily routine can help save vision. The use of a special tool, an Amsler grid, can help individuals to detect changes in their vision.


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